Electronics circuit calculation > Voltage divider calculation.

In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a simple linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division refers to the partitioning of a voltage among the components of the divider.

The formula governing a voltage divider is similar to that for a current divider, but the ratio describing voltage division places the selected impedance in the numerator, unlike current division where it is the unselected components that enter the numerator.

A simple example of a voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or a potentiometer. It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies.

Voltage divider
Vout = Vin (R2 / (R1+R2))

Vin =  Volt
Vout =  Volt
Error =  Volt (Error voltage.)
Tolerance  5%    1% (Resistor tolerance)